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Introduced into Western Europe, where it readily hybridized with S. alba, giving rise to an extensive hybrid population named S. fragilis ("crack willow"). Vegetatively propagated clones were widely cultivated. It has only recently been determined that the plants originally introduced are in fact the existing species S. euxina. The hybrid has been named S. x rubens (q.v.), and the name S. fragilis accordingly falls out of use. Since it appears that most of the so-called S. fragilis are in fact hybrid, the set of common names relating to S. fragilis is transferred to S. x rubens